而清代却独有奴性,北宋应战武将都要先单挑一制胜负然后主力再打吧

读金朝太尉好玩的事,能够极其刚毅地感觉出她们的饱满气质与南齐人统统不平等。轻松地说,汉代士先生是一堆有性格的人——当然不是对妻子发特性,亦非对上边发个性,更不是…

咱俩看过不菲演义小说和影视文章里,譬喻《三国演义》《说岳全传》,还会有《宋朝演义》《夏朝列国》什么的,里直面战争的描绘,都以两军人列车队于田野,中间有很宽大的偏离,然…

读dú宋sòng朝cháo士shì大dà夫fū轶yì事shì,可kě以yǐ非fēi常cháng明míng显xiǎn地dì感gǎn觉jiào出chū他tā们men的de精jīng神shén气qì质zhì与yǔ清qīng朝cháo人rén完wán全quán不bú一yī样yàng。简jiǎn单dān地dì说shuō,宋sòng代dài士shì大dà夫fū是shì一yī群qún有yǒu脾pí气qì的de人rén——当dāng然rán不bú是shì对duì老lǎo婆pó发fā脾pí气qì,也yě不bú是shì对duì下xià属shǔ发fā脾pí气qì,更gèng不bú是shì对duì平píng民mín发fā脾pí气qì,而ér是shì在zài皇huáng帝dì面miàn前qián有yǒu脾pí气qì。

我wǒ们men看kàn过guò很hěn多duō演yǎn义yì小xiǎo说shuō和hé影yǐng视shì作zuò品pǐn里lǐ,比bǐ如rú《三sān国guó演yǎn义yì》《说shuō岳yuè全quán传chuán》,还hái有yǒu《隋suí唐táng演yǎn义yì》《东dōng周zhōu列liè国guó》什shí么me的de,里lǐ面miàn对duì打dǎ仗zhàng的de描miáo写xiě,都dōu是shì两liǎng军jun1列liè队duì于yú旷kuàng野yě,中zhōng间jiān有yǒu很hěn宽kuān阔kuò的de距jù离lí,然rán后hòu其qí中zhōng一yī方fāng将jiāng军jun1出chū阵zhèn,跃yuè马mǎ扬yáng枪qiāng,高gāo声shēng叫jiào骂mà。另lìng一yī边biān坐zuò不bú住zhù了le,一yī将jiāng挺tǐng刀dāo而ér出chū,驱qū马mǎ杀shā奔bēn过guò来lái。然rán后hòu两liǎng边biān士shì兵bīng当dāng啦lā啦lā队duì,擂lèi鼓gǔ助zhù威wēi,大dà声shēng吆yāo喝hē。就jiù好hǎo像xiàng武wǔ将jiāng单dān挑tiāo赢yíng了le就jiù等děng于yú打dǎ仗zhàng赢yíng了le一yī样yàng。

必威app 1宋sòng朝cháo的de士shì大dà夫fū为wéi什shí么me多duō敢gǎn与yǔ皇huáng帝dì“较jiào劲jìn”,而ér清qīng朝cháo却què只zhī有yǒu奴nú性xìng”>

必威app 2

宋sòng徽huī宗zōng所suǒ绘huì《听tīng琴qín图tú》中zhōng的de宋sòng朝cháo士shì大dà夫fū形xíng象xiàng

倘tǎng若ruò这zhè场chǎng大dà战zhàn,战zhàn不bú数shù合hé,一yī方fāng将jiāng领lǐng就jiù被bèi挑tiāo落luò马mǎ下xià,那nà这zhè一yī方fāng更gèng厉lì害hài的de将jiāng领lǐng肯kěn定dìng不bú会huì服fú气qì,一yī定dìng要yào上shàng前qián报bào仇chóu雪xuě恨hèn。如rú此cǐ数shù个gè回huí合hé,当dāng某mǒu一yī方fāng所suǒ有yǒu将jiāng领lǐng都dōu被bèi打dǎ得dé趴pā下xià,再zài不bú敢gǎn出chū战zhàn的de时shí候hòu,另lìng一yī方fāng主zhǔ帅shuài令lìng旗qí一yī举jǔ,率lǜ军jun1乘chéng胜shèng掩yǎn杀shā过guò来lái,往wǎng往wǎng这zhè场chǎng战zhàn一yī开kāi始shǐ就jiù决jué定dìng了le胜shèng负fù,鲜xiān有yǒu逆nì转zhuǎn的de情qíng况kuàng。那nà么me,历lì史shǐ上shàng真zhēn实shí的de打dǎ仗zhàng,是shì不bú是shì这zhè样yàng的de呢ne?因yīn为wéi我wǒ们men没méi有yǒu生shēng活huó在zài古gǔ代dài,由yóu于yú历lì史shǐ文wén献xiàn的de限xiàn制zhì,究jiū竟jìng是shì不bú是shì这zhè样yàng打dǎ的de,其qí实shí我wǒ们men并bìng不bú完wán全quán清qīng楚chǔ。

宋sòng真zhēn宗zōng朝cháo的de翰hàn林lín学xué士shì杨yáng亿yì,恃shì才cái傲ào物wù,与yǔ宰zǎi相xiàng王wáng钦qīn若ruò不bú相xiàng得dé,王wáng钦qīn若ruò一yī进jìn办bàn公gōng室shì,杨yáng亿yì就jiù扬yáng长zhǎng而ér去qù,根gēn本běn就jiù不bú理lǐ这zhè宰zǎi相xiàng。后hòu来lái王wáng钦qīn若ruò罢bà相xiàng离lí京jīng,百bǎi官guān都dōu写xiě诗shī相xiàng赠zèng——这zhè是shì当dāng时shí的de官guān场chǎng礼lǐ节jiē,唯wéi独dú杨yáng亿yì不bú送sòng诗shī。宋sòng真zhēn宗zōng对duì杨yáng亿yì说shuō:你nǐ就jiù赠zèng他tā一yī首shǒu诗shī吧ba,不bú要yào这zhè么me意yì气qì用yòng事shì,要yào讲jiǎng大dà局jú,讲jiǎng团tuán结jié嘛ma。杨yáng亿yì对duì皇huáng帝dì的de话huà也yě是shì不bú听tīng,“竟jìng不bú肯kěn送sòng”,不bú写xiě就jiù是shì不bú写xiě,皇huáng帝dì老lǎo子zǐ也yě勉miǎn强qiáng不bú得dé。

有yǒu人rén会huì觉jiào得dé这zhè有yǒu点diǎn搞gǎo笑xiào,这zhè不bú是shì打dǎ仗zhàng,而ér是shì小xiǎo孩hái儿ér玩wán游yóu戏xì。不bú过guò,通tōng过guò我wǒ的de研yán究jiū和hé判pàn断duàn,我wǒ倒dǎo是shì觉jiào得dé,说shuō不bú定dìng古gǔ人rén还hái真zhēn就jiù是shì这zhè么me打dǎ的de呢ne。为wéi什shí么me这zhè么me说shuō呢ne?比bǐ如rú我wǒ们men看kàn《曹cáo刿guì论lùn战zhàn》这zhè个gè文wén里lǐ,一yī鼓gǔ作zuò气qì,再zài而ér衰shuāi,三sān而ér竭jié。鲁lǔ国guó和hé齐qí国guó打dǎ仗zhàng,齐qí国guó擂lèi一yī通tōng鼓gǔ,军jun1队duì冲chōng出chū来lái一yī次cì,鲁lǔ国guó不bú迎yíng战zhàn。齐qí国guó只zhī好hǎo退tuì回huí去qù。然rán后hòu齐qí国guó又yòu再zài擂lèi一yī通tōng鼓gǔ,齐qí国guó军jun1队duì又yòu冲chōng出chū来lái一yī次cì,鲁lǔ国guó还hái不bú迎yíng战zhàn,齐qí国guó又yòu只zhī得dé退tuì回huí去qù。如rú此cǐ反fǎn复fù折shé腾téng,等děng到dào齐qí国guó第dì三sān次cì冲chōng出chū来lái的de时shí候hòu,军jun1队duì已yǐ被bèi折shé腾téng得dé疲pí惫bèi不bú堪kān,怨yuàn气qì冲chōng天tiān。这zhè时shí候hòu鲁lǔ国guó才cái擂lèi响xiǎng第dì一yī通tōng鼓gǔ,结jié果guǒ一yī鼓gǔ作zuò气qì便biàn把bǎ齐qí国guó打dǎ败bài了le。

按àn宋sòng制zhì,翰hàn林lín学xué士shì有yǒu草cǎo诏zhào之zhī职zhí。一yī日rì由yóu杨yáng亿yì起qǐ草cǎo《答dá契qì丹dān书shū》,杨yáng用yòng了le一yī句jù“邻lín壤rǎng交jiāo欢huān”,宋sòng真zhēn宗zōng可kě能néng是shì出chū于yú对duì契qì丹dān之zhī恨hèn,在zài文wén稿gǎo上shàng注zhù了le“朽xiǔ壤rǎng、鼠shǔ壤rǎng、粪fèn壤rǎng”等děng语yǔ嘲cháo笑xiào之zhī。次cì日rì,杨yáng亿yì提tí出chū辞cí呈chéng,说shuō“皇huáng上shàng既jì然rán不bú满mǎn意yì我wǒ的de文wén字zì,我wǒ辞cí职zhí吧ba”。宋sòng真zhēn宗zōng只zhī好hǎo挽wǎn留liú这zhè位wèi大dà才cái子zǐ,又yòu对duì宰zǎi相xiàng说shuō:“杨yáng亿yì不bú通tōng商shāng量liàng,真zhēn有yǒu气qì性xìng。”

这zhè里lǐ并bìng没méi有yǒu说shuō先xiān将jiāng军jun1出chū战zhàn,然rán后hòu再zài士shì兵bīng出chū战zhàn的de问wèn题tí。不bú过guò它tā也yě并bìng没méi有yǒu否fǒu定dìng。而ér且qiě如rú此cǐ一yī鼓gǔ再zài鼓gǔ,这zhè种zhǒng打dǎ仗zhàng的de方fāng式shì,和hé将jiāng军jun1先xiān战zhàn,然rán后hòu士shì兵bīng再zài战zhàn的de方fāng式shì,有yǒu多duō么me的de像xiàng!大dà家jiā都dōu会huì有yǒu一yī个gè疑yí问wèn,齐qí国guó既jì然rán已yǐ经jīng擂lèi鼓gǔ出chū击jī了le,为wéi什shí么me不bú能néng趁chèn着zhe鲁lǔ国guó未wèi发fā动dòng,乘chéng势shì冲chōng杀shā,杀shā鲁lǔ国guó一yī个gè措cuò手shǒu不bú及jí呢ne?为wéi什shí么me要yào退tuì回huí去qù呢ne?这zhè真zhēn是shì太tài奇qí怪guài了le!我wǒ们men对duì这zhè种zhǒng奇qí怪guài的de疑yí惑huò,丝sī毫háo不bú下xià于yú对duì演yǎn义yì小xiǎo说shuō中zhōng将jiāng军jun1先xiān打dǎ,分fèn出chū胜shèng负fù后hòu士shì兵bīng再zài战zhàn的de疑yí惑huò。其qí实shí,说shuō到dào这zhè里lǐ,已yǐ经jīng揭jiē示shì出chū了le我wǒ们men的de传chuán统tǒng文wén化huà中zhōng对duì战zhàn争zhēng的de一yī些xiē看kàn法fǎ。

必威app 3宋sòng朝cháo的de士shì大dà夫fū为wéi什shí么me多duō敢gǎn与yǔ皇huáng帝dì“较jiào劲jìn”,而ér清qīng朝cháo却què只zhī有yǒu奴nú性xìng”>

必威app 4

张zhāng知zhī白bái(?-1028年nián),字zì用yòng晦huì

首shǒu先xiān,我wǒ们men古gǔ人rén是shì厌yàn战zhàn的de。看kàn起qǐ来lái从cóng古gǔ至zhì今jīn我wǒ们men的de历lì史shǐ上shàng发fā生shēng过guò无wú数shù次cì的de战zhàn争zhēng,但dàn从cóng古gǔ人rén的de心xīn理lǐ来lái看kàn,他tā们men是shì不bú愿yuàn意yì打dǎ仗zhàng的de,不bú愿yuàn意yì发fā动dòng战zhàn争zhēng的de。你nǐ看kàn我wǒ们men发fā明míng的de这zhè个gè“武wǔ”字zì,多duō么me形xíng象xiàng!止zhǐ戈gē,就jiù是shì不bú要yào战zhàn争zhēng。打dǎ仗zhàng的de目mù的de是shì不bú打dǎ仗zhàng,这zhè是shì有yǒu非fēi常cháng深shēn刻kè朴pǔ素sù道dào理lǐ的de,同tóng时shí也yě体tǐ现xiàn着zhe古gǔ人rén对duì战zhàn争zhēng的de评píng价jià和hé看kàn法fǎ。就jiù算suàn是shì古gǔ人rén打dǎ过guò很hěn多duō仗zhàng,但dàn大dà多duō是shì被bèi迫pò的de,尤yóu其qí是shì汉hàn人rén,汉hàn人rén几jǐ乎hū很hěn少shǎo主zhǔ动dòng对duì外wài出chū击jī,尤yóu其qí是shì对duì待dài和hé汉hàn人rén长zhǎng期qī对duì峙zhì的de北běi方fāng游yóu牧mù民mín族zú,如rú果guǒ不bú是shì游yóu牧mù民mín族zú南nán下xià骚sāo扰rǎo,汉hàn人rén几jǐ乎hū是shì不bú和hé他tā们men计jì较jiào的de。

宋sòng朝cháo“有yǒu气qì性xìng”的de士shì大dà夫fū又yòu何hé止zhǐ杨yáng亿yì一yī人rén?仁rén宗zōng朝cháo时shí,张zhāng知zhī白bái(一yī说shuō是shì张zhāng昇shēng)担dān任rèn台tái谏jiàn官guān,“言yán事shì无wú所suǒ避bì”。一yī日rì仁rén宗zōng皇huáng帝dì找zhǎo他tā谈tán话huà,大dà概gài是shì说shuō他tā“孤gū寒hán”,没méi有yǒu朋péng友yǒu,要yào注zhù意yì说shuō话huà的de方fāng寸cùn之zhī类lèi。张zhāng知zhī白bái一yī听tīng,回huí敬jìng了le皇huáng帝dì一yī句jù:“臣chén非fēi孤gū寒hán,陛bì下xià才cái孤gū寒hán。”仁rén宗zōng问wèn道dào:“何hé也yě?”张zhāng知zhī白bái说shuō:“臣chén家jiā有yǒu妻qī孥nú,外wài有yǒu亲qīn戚qī,何hé来lái孤gū寒hán?陛bì下xià只zhī有yǒu宫gōng女nǚ相xiàng伴bàn,岂qǐ非fēi孤gū寒hán?”说shuō得dé仁rén宗zōng神shén情qíng黯àn淡dàn,回huí到dào内nèi宫gōng,与yǔ皇huáng后hòu说shuō起qǐ这zhè事shì,忍rěn不bú住zhù流liú泪lèi。为wéi什shí么me?因yīn为wéi仁rén宗zōng年nián事shì渐jiàn高gāo,而ér他tā所suǒ生shēng育yù的de儿ér子zǐ都dōu夭yāo折shé了le,膝xī下xià确què实shí孤gū单dān。张zhāng知zhī白bái那nà番fān话huà,戳chuō中zhōng了le皇huáng帝dì内nèi心xīn最zuì痛tòng苦kǔ的de地dì方fāng。但dàn宋sòng仁rén宗zōng不bú能néng因yīn此cǐ怪guài罪zuì张zhāng知zhī白bái,张zhāng知zhī白bái还hái是shì继jì续xù当dāng他tā的de台tái谏jiàn官guān。

其qí次cì,就jiù算suàn是shì非fēi打dǎ仗zhàng不bú可kě,古gǔ人rén也yě总zǒng是shì以yǐ减jiǎn小xiǎo打dǎ仗zhàng的de损sǔn失shī为wéi主zhǔ。中zhōng国guó古gǔ代dài有yǒu很hěn多duō讲jiǎng军jun1事shì理lǐ论lùn的de书shū,可kě以yǐ说shuō,世shì界jiè上shàng找zhǎo不bú到dào一yī个gè国guó家jiā讲jiǎng军jun1事shì理lǐ论lùn的de书shū有yǒu我wǒ们men的de多duō,有yǒu我wǒ们men的de丰fēng富fù。而ér且qiě,我wǒ们men的de军jun1事shì理lǐ论lùn在zài先xiān秦qín时shí期qī就jiù非fēi常cháng成chéng熟shú,达dá到dào了le高gāo峰fēng,还hái因yīn此cǐ成chéng为wéi百bǎi家jiā学xué说shuō中zhōng重zhòng要yào的de一yī家jiā——兵bīng家jiā。但dàn如rú果guǒ我wǒ们men仔zǎi细xì阅yuè读dú这zhè些xiē军jun1事shì理lǐ论lùn著zhe作zuò,我wǒ们men就jiù会huì发fā现xiàn,这zhè些xiē著zhe作zuò中zhōng虽suī然rán也yě讲jiǎng到dào智zhì谋móu,用yòng兵bīng的de技jì巧qiǎo,但dàn更gèng多duō的de却què是shì讲jiǎng如rú何hé避bì免miǎn打dǎ仗zhàng,如rú何hé减jiǎn少shǎo损sǔn失shī。讲jiǎng的de是shì“心xīn理lǐ学xué”,而ér不bú是shì“力lì学xué”。比bǐ如rú咱zán们men耳ěr熟shú能néng详xiáng的de那nà些xiē句jù子zǐ:“不bú战zhàn而ér屈qū人rén之zhī兵bīng”

仁rén宗zōng皇huáng帝dì的de授shòu业yè老lǎo师shī夏xià竦sǒng去qù世shì,礼lǐ部bù拟nǐ谥shì“文wén献xiàn”,皇huáng帝dì随suí手shǒu改gǎi谥shì为wéi“文wén正zhèng”。旧jiù时shí谥shì号hào乃nǎi是shì对duì一yī个gè人rén的de盖gài棺guān定dìng论lùn,“文wén正zhèng”是shì对duì文wén臣chén的de最zuì高gāo评píng价jià,北běi宋sòng一yī百bǎi六liù十shí年nián,谥shì为wéi“文wén正zhèng”的de,只zhī有yǒu德dé高gāo望wàng重zhòng的de三sān四sì位wèi。宋sòng仁rén宗zōng感gǎn念niàn老lǎo师shī,要yào给gěi最zuì高gāo评píng价jià,但dàn士shì大dà夫fū不bú干gàn了le,负fù责zé考kǎo功gōng的de刘liú敞chǎng提tí出chū抗kàng议yì:“谥shì者zhě,有yǒu司sī之zhī事shì,且qiě竦sǒng行háng不bú应yīng法fǎ,今jīn百bǎi司sī各gè得dé守shǒu其qí职zhí,而ér陛bì下xià奈nài何hé侵qīn之zhī乎hū?”拟nǐ定dìng谥shì号hào之zhī权quán属shǔ于yú礼lǐ部bù,君jun1主zhǔ也yě不bú可kě越yuè俎zǔ代dài庖páo,侵qīn政zhèng府fǔ之zhī权quán。何hé况kuàng夏xià竦sǒng这zhè个gè人rén人rén品pǐn不bú行háng,哪nǎ里lǐ配pèi得dé上shàng“文wén正zhèng”之zhī谥shì?最zuì后hòu,夏xià竦sǒng改gǎi谥shì为wéi“文wén庄zhuāng”。

“攻gōng心xīn为wéi上shàng,攻gōng城chéng为wéi下xià”“上shàng者zhě伐fá谋móu,其qí次cì伐fá交jiāo,其qí次cì伐fá兵bīng,其qí下xià攻gōng城chéng”等děng等děng,说shuō的de就jiù是shì这zhè个gè道dào理lǐ。

必威app 5宋sòng朝cháo的de士shì大dà夫fū为wéi什shí么me多duō敢gǎn与yǔ皇huáng帝dì“较jiào劲jìn”,而ér清qīng朝cháo却què只zhī有yǒu奴nú性xìng”>

必威app 6

宋sòng理lǐ宗zōng时shí,台tái谏jiàn官guān李lǐ伯bó玉yù因yīn为wéi发fā表biǎo过guò激jī言yán论lùn,受shòu到dào降jiàng官guān处chù分fèn。但dàn降jiàng官guān的de制zhì书shū,舍shě人rén院yuàn一yī直zhí不bú肯kěn起qǐ草cǎo,以yǐ此cǐ抵dǐ制zhì皇huáng帝dì的de决jué定dìng。过guò了le一yī年nián,降jiàng官guān制zhì书shū仍réng未wèi能néng颁bān布bù。后hòu来lái牟móu子zǐ才cái兼jiān直zhí舍shě人rén院yuàn,觉jiào得dé拖tuō下xià去qù也yě不bú是shì方fāng法fǎ,终zhōng于yú将jiāng降jiàng官guān制zhì书shū草cǎo拟nǐ出chū来lái,但dàn牟móu子zǐ才cái却què用yòng他tā的de生shēng花huā妙miào笔bǐ对duì李lǐ伯bó玉yù大dà加jiā褒bāo奖jiǎng,看kàn起qǐ来lái哪nǎ里lǐ是shì一yī份fèn谪zhé词cí,分fèn明míng是shì表biǎo扬yáng信xìn。宋sòng理lǐ宗zōng找zhǎo牟móu子zǐ才cái商shāng量liàng:“谪zhé词cí皆jiē褒bāo语yǔ,卿qīng且qiě改gǎi改gǎi如rú何hé?”宰zǎi相xiàng也yě过guò来lái说shuō情qíng:“小xiǎo牟móu,给gěi皇huáng上shàng一yī个gè面miàn子zǐ,修xiū改gǎi修xiū改gǎi。”牟móu子zǐ才cái强qiáng硬yìng地dì说shuō:“腕wàn可kě断duàn,词cí不bú可kě改gǎi!丞chéng相xiàng欲yù改gǎi则zé自zì改gǎi之zhī!”这zhè么me有yǒu脾pí性xìng的de士shì大dà夫fū,宋sòng后hòu不bú多duō见jiàn了le。

必威app,第dì三sān,古gǔ人rén打dǎ仗zhàng是shì要yào讲jiǎng礼lǐ仪yí的de。所suǒ谓wèi“先xiān礼lǐ后hòu兵bīng”,只zhī有yǒu讲jiǎng了le礼lǐ仪yí之zhī后hòu才cái会huì打dǎ仗zhàng。有yǒu一yī个gè最zuì为wéi典diǎn型xíng的de例lì子zǐ。比bǐ如rú“春chūn秋qiū五wǔ霸bà”,有yǒu多duō个gè版bǎn本běn,其qí中zhōng一yī个gè是shì“齐qí桓huán公gōng、宋sòng襄xiāng公gōng、晋jìn文wén公gōng、秦qín穆mù公gōng、楚chǔ庄zhuāng王wáng”。我wǒ们men会huì觉jiào得dé很hěn奇qí怪guài,其qí它tā四sì位wèi大dà佬lǎo我wǒ们men都dōu认rèn可kě,这zhè宋sòng襄xiāng公gōng是shì怎zěn么me挤jǐ进jìn去qù的de?我wǒ们men能néng记jì住zhù的de就jiù是shì宋sòng襄xiāng公gōng的de泓hóng水shuǐ之zhī战zhàn。宋sòng楚chǔ两liǎng国guó交jiāo战zhàn,楚chǔ军jun1渡dù河hé一yī半bàn了le,宋sòng襄xiāng公gōng身shēn边biān谋móu臣chén向xiàng他tā建jiàn议yì“半bàn渡dù而ér击jī之zhī”,宋sòng襄xiāng公gōng不bú同tóng意yì,多duō不bú知zhī礼lǐ呀ya!楚chǔ军jun1渡dù河hé过guò来lái了le,又yòu有yǒu谋móu臣chén建jiàn议yì宋sòng襄xiāng公gōng趁chèn楚chǔ军jun1混hún乱luàn而ér击jī之zhī。宋sòng襄xiāng公gōng也yě不bú同tóng意yì,非fēi要yào等děng楚chǔ军jun1摆bǎi好hǎo阵zhèn再zài打dǎ,结jié果guǒ宋sòng军jun1被bèi楚chǔ军jun1打dǎ得dé大dà败bài,宋sòng襄xiāng公gōng也yě惨cǎn受shòu重zhòng伤shāng。这zhè么me个gè窝wō囊náng的de人rén,怎zěn会huì挤jǐ进jìn五wǔ霸bà之zhī一yī?其qí实shí呀ya,根gēn本běn的de原yuán因yīn就jiù是shì这zhè个gè宋sòng襄xiāng公gōng很hěn讲jiǎng用yòng兵bīng的de礼lǐ仪yí!就jiù这zhè么me一yī点diǎn,他tā才cái受shòu到dào后hòu人rén足zú够gòu的de尊zūn重zhòng!由yóu此cǐ可kě见jiàn,中zhōng华huá民mín族zú真zhēn算suàn得dé上shàng不bú好hǎo战zhàn的de民mín族zú,现xiàn在zài一yī些xiē西xī方fāng人rén歪wāi曲qǔ中zhōng国guó,认rèn为wéi中zhōng国guó要yào在zài世shì界jiè上shàng称chēng王wáng称chēng霸bà,真zhēn可kě算suàn是shì“以yǐ小xiǎo人rén之zhī心xīn,度dù君jun1子zǐ之zhī腹fù”,是shì不bú了le解jiě中zhōng国guó文wén化huà啊ā!

再zài来lái看kàn一yī个gè比bǐ较jiào没méi骨gǔ气qì的de士shì大dà夫fū。神shén宗zōng朝cháo的de王wáng珪guī,擅shàn长zhǎng阿ā谀yú圣shèng意yì,“上shàng殿diàn进jìn呈chéng,云yún‘取qǔ圣shèng旨zhǐ’

上shàng可kě否fǒu讫qì,又yòu云yún‘领lǐng圣shèng旨zhǐ’退tuì谕yù禀bǐng事shì者zhě,云yún‘已yǐ得dé圣shèng旨zhǐ’”。人rén称chēng“三sān旨zhǐ相xiàng公gōng”。此cǐ公gōng大dà概gài可kě以yǐ算suàn是shì宋sòng代dài最zuì窝wō囊náng的de宰zǎi相xiàng了le,但dàn比bǐ起qǐ清qīng朝cháo“宰zǎi相xiàng”来lái,还hái是shì小xiǎo巫wū见jiàn大dà巫wū。清qīng代dài大dà学xué士shì曹cáo振zhèn镛yōng的de为wéi官guān秘mì诀jué,是shì“多duō磕kē头tóu少shǎo说shuō话huà”,比bǐ“三sān旨zhǐ”更gèng卑bēi贱jiàn。可kě即jí便biàn是shì这zhè么me一yī个gè“三sān旨zhǐ相xiàng公gōng”,也yě有yǒu他tā的de脾pí性xìng。王wáng珪guī曾céng向xiàng神shén宗zōng三sān次cì推tuī荐jiàn张zhāng璪zǎo,神shén宗zōng都dōu不bú用yòng。王wáng珪guī便biàn提tí出chū辞cí职zhí:“臣chén为wéi宰zǎi相xiàng,三sān荐jiàn贤xián三sān不bú用yòng,臣chén失shī职zhí,请qǐng罢bà。”我wǒ们men知zhī道dào,宰zǎi相xiàng有yǒu任rèn百bǎi官guān之zhī权quán,在zài这zhè一yī权quán力lì不bú获huò君jun1主zhǔ尊zūn重zhòng的de情qíng况kuàng下xià,王wáng珪guī以yǐ辞cí职zhí要yào挟jiā,也yě算suàn是shì表biǎo现xiàn出chū了le一yī个gè宋sòng朝cháo士shì大dà夫fū的de气qì性xìng。

必威app 7宋sòng朝cháo的de士shì大dà夫fū为wéi什shí么me多duō敢gǎn与yǔ皇huáng帝dì“较jiào劲jìn”,而ér清qīng朝cháo却què只zhī有yǒu奴nú性xìng”>

中zhōng国guó的de士shì风fēng是shì在zài清qīng代dài才cái遭zāo到dào严yán重zhòng摧cuī抑yì的de,经jīng过guò“扬yáng州zhōu十shí日r씓嘉jiā定dìng三sān屠tú”之zhī后hòu,江jiāng南nán士shì风fēng出chū现xiàn了le严yán重zhòng的de奴nú化huà。一yī位wèi清qīng初chū的de读dú书shū人rén观guān察chá到dào:“迩ěr来lái士shì大dà夫fū日rì贱jiàn,官guān长zhǎng日rì尊zūn,于yú是shì曲qǔ意yì承chéng奉fèng,备bèi极jí卑bēi污wū,甚shèn至zhì生shēng子zǐ遣qiǎn女nǚ,厚hòu礼lǐ献xiàn媚mèi,立lì碑bēi造zào祠cí,仆pú仆pú跪guì拜bài,此cǐ辈bèi风fēng气qì愈yù盛shèng,视shì为wéi当dāng然rán,彼bǐ此cǐ效xiào尤yóu,恬tián不bú为wéi怪guài。”时shí代dài的de风fēng气qì已yǐ变biàn,士shì子zǐ的de脊jǐ梁liáng骨gǔ已yǐ断duàn。直zhí到dào清qīng末mò,士shì人rén才cái略luè恢huī复fù宋sòng朝cháo士shì大dà夫fū的de气qì性xìng。

▌摘zhāi自zì《宋sòng:现xiàn代dài的de拂fú晓xiǎo时shí辰chén》吴wú钩gōu广guǎng西xī师shī大dà出chū版bǎn社shè授shòu权quán合hé作zuò稿gǎo件jiàn

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